Our institution

Studying at CONSMUPA

Extracurricular activities

Library

The academic community of CONSMUPA is formed by 80 professors, 300 students and 11 administration and service staff members. The premises are open from 8:00 a.m. to 10:00 p.m.

Each academic year there are about 75 chamber music ensembles, two orchestras (one symphonic and the other dedicated to chamber music), a symphonic band, brass ensembles, as well as saxophone and percussion bands. Cello, tuba and trumpet bands function as extracurricular formative activities.

The Development and Communication Department organizes over 120 public concerts a year so that students can gain real artistic experience performing as a soloist or in ensembles, which will improve their chances in the world of work.

The premises are equipped with 50 classrooms, 20 practice rooms, a concert hall, a chamber music room, a library (with music and video resources), a multi-purpose room, an electro-acoustic laboratory and a computer room.

More than 170 courses, either practical or theoretical (compulsory or elective), are offered. There are 7 teaching departments: Singing and Ensembles, Composition and Theory of Music, Improvisation and Accompaniment, String Instruments, Keyboard Instruments, Woodwind Instruments, and Brass and Percussion Instruments.

Each year, CONSMUPA invites esteemed collaborating professors to give courses and master classes, so that the students get to experience different ideas and ways of working, as well as develop their musical conscience and positive self-criticism. There are also two annual meetings dedicated to intensive practical training in the symphonic band / orchestra in collaboration with different conductors.

Studying at CONSMUPA

The academic community of CONSMUPA is formed by 80 professors, 300 students and 11 administration and service staff members. The premises are open from 8:00 a.m. to 10:00 p.m.

Each academic year there are about 75 chamber music ensembles, two orchestras (one symphonic and the other dedicated to chamber music), a symphonic band, brass ensembles, as well as saxophone and percussion bands. Cello, tuba and trumpet bands function as extracurricular formative activities.

The Development and Communication Department organizes over 120 public concerts a year so that students can gain real artistic experience performing as a soloist or in ensembles, which will improve their chances in the world of work.

The premises are equipped with 50 classrooms, 20 practice rooms, a concert hall, a chamber music room, a library (with music and video resources), a multi-purpose room, an electro-acoustic laboratory and a computer room.

More than 170 courses, either practical or theoretical (compulsory or elective), are offered. There are 7 teaching departments: Singing and Ensembles, Composition and Theory of Music, Improvisation and Accompaniment, String Instruments, Keyboard Instruments, Woodwind Instruments, and Brass and Percussion Instruments.

Each year, CONSMUPA invites esteemed collaborating professors to give courses and master classes, so that the students get to experience different ideas and ways of working, as well as develop their musical conscience and positive self-criticism. There are also two annual meetings dedicated to intensive practical training in the symphonic band / orchestra in collaboration with different conductors.

Bachelor degrees

CONSMUPA has been implementing the Bologna structures since 2010. All Bachelor degrees are a duration of 4 years (240 ECTS). The following Bachelor degrees have been established: Composition, Conducting, Performance (Accordion, Voice, Harpsichord/Organ, Strings / Brass / Percussion, Guitar, Piano) and Pedagogy (Accordion / Guitar, Voice / Strings /Brass / Percussion, Harpsichord / Organ, Piano).

There are 3 types of courses: basic compulsory (A), major compulsory (B) and elective (O). Students must enrol in 60 ECTS during their first year of study and reach 240 ECTS at the end of the studying period. The number of ECTS of Elective Courses to be taken depends on the major (see the curricula below).

Major

Major in Composition

Major in Conducting

Performance – Accordion

Performance – Voice

Performance – Harpsichord / Organ

Performance – Strings / Wind Instruments / Percussion

Performance – Guitar

Performance – Piano

Pedagogy- Accordion / Guitar

Pedagogy – Voice / Sstrings / Wind Instruments / Percussion

Pedagogy- Harpsichord / Organ

Pedagogy – Piano

In the academic year 2012-13, CONSMUPA was still teaching curricula according to the LOGSE (former education system law) for 4th year students. These curricula lead to a diploma which is equivalent to a Bachelor Degree. In the present academic year 2018-19 all students of CONSMUPA follow the new curricula.

Organization Chart

MANAGEMENT TEAM

Director:

Mr. Fernando Agüeria Cueva

Secretary:

Mr. Martín Martín Acevedo

Head of Studies:

Mr. Fernando López Blanco

Mrs. María Ángeles Villamor Martínez

LIBRARY:

Head of Library:

Mrs. Mercedes Fernández Menéndez

DEPARTMENTS

String Department

Head of the department:

Mr. Miguel Bobo de la Peña -Guitar-

Faculty:

Mr. Manuel Ballesteros Taboada -Double bass-
Mr. Rolando Serafín Bernal Martínez -Violin-
Mr. Alexei Mijlin Grodensky -Violin-
Mr. Luis Magín Muñiz Bascón -Viola-
Mr. Yuri Nasushkin Labovsky -Violin-
Mrs. Bogumila Rekucka Zalewska -Violoncello-
Mrs. María Ángeles Villamor Martínez -Violoncello-

Wood-wind Department

Head of the department:

Mr. Alberto Veintimilla Bonet -Clarinet-

Faculty:

Mrs. Julia Estévez Salgueiro -Flute-
Mr. Antonio Ribera Soler -Clarinet-
Mr. Guillermo Rodríguez Palacio -Saxophone-
Mrs. Johanna Suárez González -Fagot-
Mrs. Clara María Suárez Rodríguez -Bagpipe-
Mrs. Carmen Viejo Llaneza -Flute-

Brass and Percussion Department

Head of the department:

Mr. Alfonso Mollá Castells -Tuba-

Faculty:

Mr. Gabriel Alberto Elías Casal -Percussion-
Mr.  -Trombone-
Mr. José Rodrigo Roglá -Horn-
Mr. José Antonio Vázquez Martínez -Trumpet-

Keyboard Department

Head of the department:

Mr. Fernando Orfila Abadía -Piano-

Faculty:

Mr. Manuel Cabo González -Piano-
Mr. Ignacio G. González Yagüe -Organ-
Mr. Martín Martín Acevedo -Piano-
Mrs. Amanda Pérez Riesgo -Piano-
Mrs. Paula Raposo Rodríguez -Piano-

Voice and Ensembles Department

Head of the department:

Mr. Antonio Ribera Soler -Clarinet-

Faculty:

Mrs. Arantxa Atutxa Gutiérrez
Mrs. María Begoña García Sánchez -Voice-
Mr. Paulino Jardón Gurruchaga -Chamber music-
Mrs. Ethel María Moirón Fernández-Felechosa -English and german-
Mr. Manuel Real Tresgallo -Conductor-
Mrs. Bogumila Rekucka Zalewska -Chamber Music-

Composition and Music Theory Department

Head of the department:

Mr. Manuel Martínez Burgos -Composition- 

Faculty:

Mr. Fernando Agüeria Cueva
Mr. Jorge Carrillo Fernández -Composition-
Mr. Miguel Ángel Cuesta González
Mrs. Olaya Fernández Herrero
Mr. Rubén García Martín -Composition- 
Mr. José Esteban García Miranda
Mr. Fernando López Blanco -Composition-
Mrs. Ana Rosa Melero Herreras

Improvisation and Accompaniment Department

Head of the department:

Mrs. Beatriz Rodríguez Enríquez

Faculty:

Mr. Jorge Abreu Seoane
Mrs. María Álvarez Vidales
Mr. Xaime Gabriel Arias González
Mr. Jorge Diego Fernández Valera
Mr. Enrique Miguel Moreno Iglesias
Mrs. Irina Moussatova
Mrs. Eva Roces García
Mr. Fernando Santirso González
Mr. Marcos Suárez Fernández

Incoming students

Application

NEW Deadline:  May 5th, 11 p. m.

The Application must be sent by AEC APPLICATION SYSTEM – EASY with:

  • Learning Agreement
  • Curriculum Vitae
  • Nomination (by the International Relations Coordinator of your school)
  • Link to access a recording in video format, during between 15 and 30 minutes and presenting 3 different musical styles

The selected students will attend a free Spanish class at the University of Oviedo.

For further information, contact:

Incoming teachers

The Erasmus Programme   allows to   exchange educational experiences making it easier for teachers from other Conservatories visit our centre. In this way, knowledge networks are built and the exchange of innovative practices is enabled and consequently, benefit of all.

To gain maximum exposure, the visiting professors lessons will be aimed at all of students of the instrument or specialty that is taught and open to the rest of the students interested in them.

If you want to make an Erasmus+ Mobility in our centre, you can contact us at:   (Elisa García). Please, send us a brief CV, the information about course content that you would like to teach and a proposal of dates. You will receive an answer on our part within 15 days.

We look forward to welcoming you!

Partner institutions

 

COUNTRY CITY INSTITUTION ERASMUS CODE
ALEMANIA BERLIN HOCHSCHULE FÜR MUSIK HANNS EISLER D BERLIN 16
AUSTRIA EISENSTADT JOSEPH HAYDIN CONSERVATOIRE A EISENST05
AUSTRIA VIENA UNIVERSITÄT FÜR MUSIK UND DARSTELLENDE KUNST WIEN A WIEN08
AUSTRIA VIENA MUSIC AND ARTS UNIVERSITY OF THE CITY OF VIENNA A WIEN52
BÉLGICA AMBERES ARTESIS PLANTIJN HOGESCHOOL ANTWERPEN B ANTWERP62
BÉLGICA BRUSELAS ERASMUS HOGESCHOOL B BRUSSEL46
DINAMARCA KOBENHAVN THE ROYAL DANISH ACADEMY OF MUSIC DK Kobenha09
ESTONIA TALLIN ESTONIAN ACADEMY OF MUSIC AND THEATRE EE TALLINN03
ESTONIA TARTU UNIVERSITY OF TARTU EE TARTU02
FINLANDIA HELSINKI HELSINKI METROPOLIA UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SCIENCES SF HELSINK41
FRANCIA DIJON PÔLE D’ENSEIGNEMENT SUPÉRIEUR DE LA MUSIQUE BOURGOGNE F DIJON32
FRANCIA LYON CONSERVATOIRE NATIONAL SUPÉRIEUR MUSIQUE ET DANSE DE LYON F LYON24
FRANCIA POITIERS CENTRE D’ÉTUDES SUPÉRIEURS MUSIQUE ET DANSE DE POITOU-CHARENTES F POITIER29
FRANCIA LILLE ÉCOLE SUPÉRIEURE MUSIQUE ET DANSE NORD DE FRANCE F LILLE71
HUNGRÍA BUDAPEST LISZT FERENC ACADEMY OF MUSIC HU BUDAPES25
HUNGRÍA PÉCS UNIVERSITY OF PÉCS HU PECS01
ISLANDIA REYKJAVIK ICELAND ACADEMY OF THE ARTS IS REYKJAV06
ITALIA ADRIA CONSERVATORIO DI MUSICA DI ADRIA «ANTONIO BUZZOLLA» I ADRIA01
ITALIA AVELLINO CONSERVATORIO STATALE DI MUSICA «DOMENICO CIMAROSA» I AVELLIN01
ITALIA BENEVENTO CONSERVATORIO DI MUSICA «NICOLA SALA» I BENEVEN03
ITALIA BRESCIA CONSERVATORIO DI MUSICA «LUCA MARENZIO» I BRESCIA06
ITALIA CASTELFRANCO VÉNETO CONSERVATORIO DI MUSICA «AGOSTINO STEFFANI» I CASTELF01
ITALIA CESENA CONSERVATORIO STATALE DI MUSICA «BRUNO MADERNA» I CESENA01
ITALIA COSENZA CONSERVATOIRE OF MUSIC «STANISLAO GIACOMANTONIO» I COSENZA03
ITALIA CUNEO CONSERVATORIO DI MUSICA «G.F.GHEDINI» I CUNEO01
ITALIA FLORENCIA CONSERVATORIO DI MUSICA «LUIGI CHERUBINI» DI FIRENZE I FIRENZE04
ITALIA FOGGIA CONSERVATORIO STATALE DI MUSICA «UMBERTO GIORDANO» I FOGGIA02
ITALIA FROSINONE CONSERVATORIO DI MUSICA «L.REFICE» I FROSINO02
ITALIA MANTOVA CONSERVATORIO DI MUSICA LUCIO CAMPIANI MANTOVA I MANTOVA01
ITALIA MESSINA CONSERVATORIO DI MUSICA DI STATO «A.CORELLI» I MESSINA04
ITALIA NAPOLI CONSERVATORIO DI MUSICA «SAN PIETRO A MAJELLA» I NAPOLI 07
ITALIA NOCERA TERINESE ISTITUTO SUPERIORI DI STUDI MUSICALI «P.I. TCHAIKOVSKY» I CATANZA04
ITALIA PADOVA CONSERVATORIO STATALE DI MUSICA «C.POLLINI» I PADOVA02
ITALIA PARMA CONSERVATORIO DI MUSICA «ARRIGO BOITO» I PARMA02
ITALIA PESARO CONSERVATORIO STATALE DI MUSICA «G. ROSSINI» I PESARO01
ITALIA PESCARA CONSERVATORIO STATALE DI MUSICA «LUISA D’ANNUNZIO» I PESCARA01
ITALIA REGGIO EMILIA INSTITUTO SUPERIORI DI STUDI MUSICALI DI REGGIO EMILIA I REGGIO05
ITALIA ROMA CONSERVATORIO DI MUSICA SANTA CECILIA I ROMA09
ITALIA ROMA SAINT LOUIS COLLEGE OF MUSIC I ROMA30
ITALIA SALERNO CONSERVATORIO DI MUSICA GIUSEPPE MARTUCCI SALERNO I SALERNO02
ITALIA TRENTO CONSERVATORIO DI MUSICA «F.A. BONPORTI» I TRENTO02
ITALIA TRIESTE CONSERVATORIO DI MUSICA GIUSEPPE TARTINI I TRIESTE02
ITALIA VERONA CONSERVATORIO DI MUSICA «E.F.DALL’ABACO» I VERONA02
LITUANIA VILNA LIETUVOS MUZIKOS IR TEATRO AKADEMIJA LT VILNIUS05
NORUEGA BERGEN UNIVERSITETET I BERGEN N BERGEN01
PAÍSES BAJOS GRONINGEN HANZE UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SCIENCE GRONINGEN NL GRONING03
PAÍSES BAJOS LA HAYA KONINKLIJK CONSERVATORIUM, HOGESCHOOL DE KUNSTEN NL S-GRAVE05
PAÍSES BAJOS EINDHOVEN FONTYS UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SCIENCES NL EINDHOV03
PAÍSES BAJOS MAASTRICHT ZUYD UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SCIENCES (Heerlen) NL HEERLEN14
PAÍSES BAJOS ROTTERDAM CODARTS NL ROTTERD09
PAÍSES BAJOS UTRECHT HKU UNIVERSITY OF THE ARTS UTRECHT/HKU UTRECHTS CONSERVATORIUM NL UTRECHT29
POLONIA CRACOVIA AKADEMIA MUZYCZNA W KRAKOWIE PL KRAKOW09
POLONIA VARSOVIA UNIWERYTET MUZYCZNY FRYDERYKA CHOPINA PL WARSZAW09
POLONIA BYDGOSZCZ THE FELIKS NOWOWIEJSKI ACADEMY OF MUSIC IN BYDGOSZCZ PL BYDGOSZ04
PORTUGAL PORTO INSTITUTO POLITECNICO DO PORTO — ESMAE P PORTO05
INGLATERRA BIRMINGHAM BIRMINGHAM CONSERVATOIRE (BIRMINGHAM CITY UNIVERSITY) UK BIRMING03
INGLATERRA LONDRES TRINITY LABAN CONSERVATOIRE OF MUSIC AND DANCE UK LONDON027
TURQUÍA ESMIRNA YASAR UNIVERSITESI TR IZMIR05
SUECIA ESTOCOLMO KUNGLIGA MUSIKHÖGSKOLAN I STOCKHOLM (KMH) S STOCKHO11

 

 

 

Practical information for international students

Arriving in Oviedo

a) The Airport of Asturias (OVD) is 47 km from Oviedo. There are flights to and from London (Stansted), Paris (Charles de Gaulle), Lisbon; Madrid, Barcelona, Majorca, Malaga, Seville, Granada, Valencia, Alicante, Lanzarote and Tenerife, as well as other internal and international flights depending on the season. For more information check http://www.aena-aeropuertos.es/es/aeropuerto-asturias/index.html

Once at the airport, you can take a taxi to Oviedo (which will be very expensive; It costs more or less 56€) or you can take a bus that will cost you around 8€ and will get you downtown in 45 minutes. There are buses from the Airport to Oviedo from 7.00 to 23.00 every hour. You can get more information at www.alsa.es.

b) You can also fly to Santander airport (193 km far from Oviedo) from London (Stansted), Brussels (Charleroi), Edinburgh, Dublin, Dusseldorf (Weeze), Milan (Bergamo) and Rome (Ciampino). There are 2 buses every day from the airport to Oviedo (it takes about 3 and a half hours and it costs 13,35€) or you can take a bus to downtown Santander and catch another one to Oviedo from there (it costs 13,35€) . For more information check www.alsa.es.

c) There are many buses from Madrid and some from other major cities. You can check at www.alsa.es.

d) You can also travel by train. You will find more information at www.renfe.com.

Looking for Accommodation

You will have to find your own accommodation for your stay in Oviedo. However, if you send an announcement looking for accommodation to the staff of the International Office, they will hang it on the notice boards of the Conservatory. Many international students find accommodation that way if they send the announcement early enough.

 

Transport

Information on public transport, current ticket prices and discounts for students is available on the following website: http://www.consorcioasturias.es/es/portal.do?IDM=66&NM=3

To get a student discount, you must demonstrate that you are currently enrolled in a studies programme. That won’t be a problem once you arrive at the Conservatory, as you will be given the Conservatory’s student card.

For travelling around the region, the most popular options are buses and trains: Spanish national railways (RENFE) and regional narrow gauge lines (FEVE).

Useful websites:

http://www.renfe.com/EN/viajeros/index.html

http://www.estaciondeautobusesdeoviedo.com/ 

Insurance

All incoming exchange students admitted shall register at the International Relations Office (IRO) of the CONSMUPA upon arrival and present proof of medical insurance. EU students shall present their European Health Insurance Card. It is compulsory for students from countries that have not signed any health service agreement with Spain or who are not covered by public insurance in their countries of origin to have a private health and accident insurance.

Incoming students admitted for training shall also be insured against accidents and third party liability.

Starting your studies at CONSMUPA

If you have been admitted into CONSMUPA within an International exchange scheme (for example Erasmus) you should get in contact with the International Relations Office () who will help you with all the paperwork and practical issues that might arise.

You can ask for a “Peer Mentor”: this will be a CONSMUPA student who will pick you up at the airport/station, will help you to find accommodation (although we advise you to find it before your arrival) and will help you during the first days of your stay. In exchange, we will ask you to fill in a written questionnaire on their performance as a Peer Mentor a month or two after your arrival in Oviedo. Unfortunately, we cannot guarantee that you will have a “Peer Mentor”: it depends on the availability of CONSMUPA students on your arrival.

Before your arrival in Oviedo, we ask you to tell the International Relations Office your arrival date and time. Then a time will be fixed for a meeting with the staff of the IR Office at the Conservatory. You will be given the CONSMUPA student card and your schedule, and will be able to ask any questions about your stay that you might have. You should bring the following to this meeting:

  • A passport photo.
  • Your ID card / passport.
  • Your visa (if you come from a country which requires it).
  • Your health insurance card.

You will be asked to fill in a registration form.

Language requirements

Spanish is used in all courses and lessons at CONSMUPA, although for international exchange students some instrumental or chamber music lessons may be given in English (if the teacher agrees).

We offer a 3-ECTS year-long Spanish for Musicians course. The University of Oviedo organizes intensive courses for Erasmus students twice a year (October, February) and the CONSMUPA international students are allowed to attend one of these. For more information ask the IRO.

 Academic calendar

Classes begin in mid-September . First semester exams are usually the last week of January / first week of February. Second semester exams usually finish by June 15th.

Culture

Oviedo has a very rich cultural life, especially musically speaking: there are 2 professional orchestras, an opera season, a zarzuela season, several festivals (piano, dance)… For some of these events you will get a 50% discount on the ticket price if you buy it on the day of the performance and show your CONSMUPA student card. 

Sports Centres

A list of municipal sports centres in Oviedo is provided below:

http://www.oviedo.es/index.php/es/servicios-municipales/deportes/instalaciones-deportivas-municipales/polideportivos 

Tourism

Asturias is a very attractive region for people who enjoy active tourism.

There are numerous mountaineering groups that organize regular excursions. For more details, please consult the official websites of particular groups.

The seaside area of Asturias is also an excellent windsurfing and other water sports zone.

Places of cultural importance in Asturias, apart from Oviedo itself, include Gijón, Avilés, Covadonga, Llanes, Cudillero…

For more information, please consult: http://www.asturias.es/portal/site

Climate

The climate in Oviedo is rather mild, with mean temperatures around 5º – 10º C in December – February and possibly over 25º C in June – August. Due to its closeness to the ocean, the atmosphere is rather humid with a lot of rain during the year. In winter some snowfall may occur.

(Warning: this information is subject to change)

Looking for accommodation

You will have to find your own accommodation for your stay in Oviedo. However, if you send an announcement looking for accommodation to the staff of the International Office, they will hang it on the notice boards of the Conservatory. Many international students find accommodation that way if they send the announcement early enough.

Here you can find some accommodations, such as residences, apartments, hotels… (last updated in May 2019)

Student residences

Name Address Telephone Website

Residencia

El Bosque

C/ Monseñor O. A. Romero nº 5 985 280 950 http://fundoma.org/servicios.php?IdServicio=1

Residencia Femenina

María Inmaculada

Calle San Vicente 2 985 218 746 https://residenciasrmi.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=20&Itemid=102
Colegio Mayor América C/ Valdés Salas s/n 985 109 565 http://colegioamerica.uniovi.es/inicio
Colegio Mayor San Gregorio C/ Valdés Salas s/n 985 109 500 http://sangregorio.uniovi.es/
Residencia Ovida Calle Lena 5 984 289 330 https://ovida.es/
Alojamientos Dohve Calle González Besada 18 687 575 757 https://www.alojamientosdohve.com/

 

Hostels & guesthouses

Name Address Telephone Website basic prices

Albergue Ramón Menendez Pidal

(Youth Hostel)

Julian Clavería Street 14

(it is not near the Conservatory)

985 966 570 https://www.tripadvisor.es/Hotel_Review-g187452-d2716445-Reviews-Albergue_Residencia_Juvenil_Ramon_Menendesz_Pidal-Oviedo_Asturias.html#REVIEWS Double room 22,20 € – 30,30€
Hostal Mendizábal Mendizábal Street 4 Piso 2° 985 220 189 https://www.turismoasturias.es/organiza-tu-viaje/donde-dormir/alojamiento/hostales/mendizabal

Single room 20 -25 €

Double room 30 – 40 €

Hostal Arcos Magdalena Street 3 985 214 773 https://hostal-arcos-oviedo.hotelmix.es/

Single room: 30€

Double room: 35€

Hostal San Juan Palacio Valdés Street 4 985 215 422 https://www.gronze.com/asturias/oviedo/hostal-san-juan Single room 25 €

 

Hotels

Santa Clara «« Santa Clara Street 1 985 22 27 27 http://www.hsantaclara.com/

Single room:  33€ – 45€

Double room: 33€ – 50€

Covadonga City Express «« Covadonga Street 7 985 203 232  http://www.hotelcityexpresscovadonga.es

Single room: 30,60€ – 34€

Double room: 36€ – 40€

Longoria Plaza ««« Covadonga Street 13 985 207 847 http://www.hotellongoriaplaza.es Single room: 45€ – 62,55€
Campoamor «««« Argüelles St. 23 985 210 720 http://www.hotelcampoamoroviedo.com

Single room: 58,90€ – 62€

Double room: 58,90€ – 62€

Ciudad de Oviedo «««« Gascona Street 21 985 222 224 http://www.hotelciudaddeoviedo.es

Single room:  59€ -70€

Double room: 59€ -81€

 

Prices can differ according to travel seasons and equipment of rooms.

All information is subject to change.

We kindly recommend searching also on internet portals because there you can book the rooms sometimes for even more reasonable prices. E.g. visit these websites: http://www.booking.com , http://www.atrapalo.com/ , http://www.tripadvisor.es/ , http://www.trivago.es/ or http://www.hostelworld.com/

Another option would be to rent an apartment. Below, we attach some links of the best web pages for apartment rentals: https://www.fotocasa.es/es/ https://www.idealista.com/ , https://www.tucasa.com/ , https://www.pisos.com/ or https://www.yaencontre.com/

CONSMUPA